Recent Publications include:
Ulrich Scholten, Christian Janiesch, Christoph Rosenkranz (2013)
Inciting Networks Effects Through Platform Authority: A Design Theory for Service Platforms
The provisioning of software has shifted towards a service model, where applications are hosted, metered, and billed through service platforms rather than being sold as on-premise software. These services can exhibit network effects, which are self-enforcing effects of value generation. They describe the interdependency of service or platform value, service consumption, and third party service provisioning. Service platforms need to be designed to incite these network effects. We propose a design theory which is based on the authority of the platform operator as the key factor for controlling and influencing stakeholders in and around the service platform in different control modes. As a design method, we propose a conceptual modeling language which supports service platform design with staged areas of authority, process flows as well as control methods. We present the rationale behind the language, discuss its application, and propose testable hypotheses for an empirical evaluation.
Ulrich Scholten (2013)
Dynamic Network Notation: A Graphical Modeling Language to Support the Visualization and Management of Network Effects in Service Platforms (Phd Thesis)
Service platforms have moved into the center of interest in both academic research and the IT industry due to their economic and technical impact. These multitenant platforms provide own or third party software as metered, on-demand services. Corresponding service offers exhibit network effects. The present work introduces a graphical modeling language to support service platform design with focus on the exploitation of these network effects.
Ulrich Scholten, Nelly Schuster, Stefan Tai (2012):
A Pattern Language and Repository for Service Network Management.
Successful service platform operators foster their market performance by leveraging economic network effects, which implicitly control service ecosystems. Explicitly, third party services are used to complement the intrinsic value of the platform to the users. The platform operators key to success is the initiation of a snowballing interplay of consumer preference and a respective portfolio of service offerings. The Dynamic Network Notation DYNO supports modeling such service networks from a service management perspective, while defining system-interaction control and exploiting network effects. However, there is a need for an evolving and reusable base of experience that allows researchers and platform operators to learn from and to share knowledge on best practices. To this end, we introduce service network management patterns based on DYNO. In addition, to exploit the dispersed applications through various market segments, we present a community-driven pattern repository. The repository applies coordination and review means to ensure quality of patterns without restricting creativity during the pattern design process.
Ulrich Scholten, Robin Fischer, Christian Zirpins (2012):
The Dynamic Network Notation: Harnessing Network Effects in PaaS-Ecosystems. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop on Simplifying Complex Networks for Practitioners co-located to the www2012, Lyon.
Web applications complement the Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) value by satisfying widespread and rapidly changing consumer requirements within limited time and budget. Successful PaaS providers excel in governing their market performance by leveraging complex network effects, which implicitly control PaaS-ecosystems. There is currently no methodically sound and easy to use tool available to business analysts and software engineers of PaaS-offerings that addresses challenges and opportunities in launching and governing such highly dynamic networks. In this paper, we capture network behavior through elements of complex system and control theory. Our dynamic network notation (DYNO) builds upon these theories. In more detail, DYNO models PaaS offerings with a focus on identifying and shaping network effects towards a sufficient user-base and an optimized portfolio of Web applications, all while maintaining a high quality of service.
Nelly Schuster, Christian Zirpins, Ulrich Scholten (2011):
How to Balance Flexibility and Coordination? Service-oriented Model and Architecture for Document-based Collaboration on the Web. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Service Oriented Computing & Applications SOCA 2011, Irvine (in print)
Frequently, distributed work groups require the documenting of joint activities or collaborative authoring of documents comprising diverse resources, originating both from humans and the Web or enterprise systems. These creative collaborations involve ad hoc human interactions and unexpected changes which build an implicit situational process. Supporting such collaboration requires a balance between retaining flexibility of collaboration with space for individual creativity and the ability to coordinate the collaborative evolution of documents. Existing coordination approaches support (partial) automation of conventional business processes but are too inflexible for creative collaboration. Web-based collaboration tools do not explicitly drive coordination. In this paper we provide a collaboration model for the coordinated creation of documents as an evolving composition of services embedded into a RESTful scalable architecture. Through a prototype we substantiate how the approach leads to intended output documents.
Simone Scholten, Ulrich Scholten (2011):
Platform-based Innovation Management: Directing External Innovation Efforts in Platform Ecosystems, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer, New York, DOI 10.1007/s13132-011-0072-5
Modular platforms have become the centerpiece of collaborative value creation in platform ecosystems. Platform ecosystems co-create the value proposition of the platform and support its market adoption as the more complementors join the ecosystem to supply complementarities, the more valuable the platform becomes to consumers due to a greater variety of choice. This poses new requirements on managing innovation in open platform environments. While academic research stresses the relevance of external complementary innovation for platform success, it lacks, however, a concrete understanding to guide platform owners in directing external innovational efforts in coopetive platform ecosystems to co-create and deliver value, while ensuring the overall quality, reliability and consistency of the "whole" solution. Based on the challenges platform ecosystems place on innovation management, this paper explores and categorizes control mechanisms leading platform owners in the ICT industry have implemented to steer external complementary innovation efforts. From that an overall platform-based innovation management process is developed.
Ulrich Scholten, Robin Fischer, Christian Zirpins, Simone Scholten (2011):
DYNO: A Notation to Leverage Dynamic Network Effects in PaaS Ecosystems, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Service Oriented Computing & Applications SOCA 2011, Irvine (in print)
Platform-as-a-Services offerings continuously gain importance as two-sided markets, offering Software-as-aService (SaaS) to the respective customers. Market success is achieved by platforms which excel in shaping ecosystems of users and autonomous SaaS suppliers around their basic value proposition - and in controlling quality of service in function of customers requirements. In this paper, we suggest a notation for dynamic networks "DYNO", designed to help platform providers in creating PaaS, optimized on their specific requirements. In addition, DYNO gives support in properly allocating control mechanisms to guarantee high quality of service. In a use-case we describe how business analysts and service engineers may use DYNO models to conceive PaaS ecosystems.
Normann May, Ulrich Scholten, Robin Fischer (2011):
Towards an Automated Gap Analysis for e-Service Portfolios, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Services Computing SCC 2011, Washington,
Intermediaries for e-services continuously gain momentum, powered by a materializing Internet of Services. However, quality of service still exhibits considerable shortcomings, as no structured process to enhance consumer satisfaction is available yet. To improve the match of delivered e-service quality and expected service quality on the consumer side, we develop a portfolio optimization process that integrates both, the consumer and the intermediary perspectives. First, we introduce a toolkit for an e-service-oriented gap analysis. Thereupon, we identify monitoring points to measure service quality gaps automatically. A subsequent aggregation of measured data into customized feedback information allows for applying the toolkit to continuously optimize e-service portfolios. Instantiated in the AGORA e-service market, we conclude with a report on our recent implementation results.
Ulrich Scholten, Robin Fischer, Dimitir Bojkov, Normann May (2011):
Supply Chain Control building on Emergent Self-Organizing Effects, Proceedings of the 4th academic symposium on Supply Management, Würzburg,
This paper sheds light on control mechanisms to improve and automate service quality respectively service portfolio management in platform ecosystems. Its focus is placed on e-service value networks as found in platforms such as the Apple App Store, Facebook, Salesforce or SAP ByD. The paper differentiates between direct and indirect control mechanisms and explains how they can be embedded within feedback controlled systems. Informative and Motivational Control mechanisms act on the macro level, indirectly influencing a whole system or subsystem towards a specific target. Sanctional and Restrictive Control in conjunction with Co-Regulative Control act on the micro level and directly influence specific services. Market Regulative Control indirectly influences specific services. The paper suggests and formalizes possible sequences to implement control mechanisms, allowing for optimizing and building on the emergent characteristics of the platform ecosystem.
Ulrich Scholten (2010):
Service Level Management in Platform Ecosystems, Proceedings of the INFORMATIK 2010 conference on Service Science, Leipzig,
With growing importance of e-service platforms, enhanced Service Level Management (SLM) concepts are required, paying respect to the autonomy of the service provider as an important source for value creation within a platform ecosystem. This paper proposes a highly automated SLM concept, wherein traditional direct control mechanisms are complemented by indirect mechanisms, including reputation systems, selected motivational measures and information-based guidance of each individual service-provider. The concept makes use of the inherent emergent and self-organizing processes of the ecosystem and is grounded on system and control theory.
Simone Scholten, Ulrich Scholten (2010):
Platform-based Innovation Management: Directing External Innovational Efforts in Self-Organizing Platform Ecosystems, Proceedings of the PICMET 2010 conference on Technology Management for Global Economic Growth, Bangkok,
During recent years, modular platforms have become the centerpiece of collaborative value creation in customer-driven platform ecosystems. Platform ecosystems co-create the value proposition of the platform and support its market adoption as the more complementors join the ecosystem to supply complementarities, the more valuable the platform becomes to customers due to a greater variety of choice. This poses new requirements on managing innovation in open platform environments. While academic research stresses the relevance of complementary innovation for platform success, it lacks, however, a concrete understanding of how platform operators can direct external innovational efforts in complex self-organizing ecosystems to co-create and deliver value while ensuring the overall quality, reliability, and consistency of the whole product. Based on case study results, this paper presents a categorization of control mechanisms currently applied in platform markets, enabling the platform operator to steer external complementary innovation within the context of a platform strategy. From that an overall innovation management process is developed.
Robin Fischer, Ulrich Scholten, Simone Scholten (2010):
A reference architecture for feedback-based control of service ecosystems
Proceeding of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystems and Technologies DEST 2010, DUBAI,
With the emergence of digital business ecosystems, new control mechanisms are required to sustainably ensure responsiveness on dynamically evolving consumer demand, as well as goal congruence with the strategic goals of the platform provider. Based on system theoretical reflections, we propose a 3-layer reference architecture that collects data on service interactions, aggregates monitoring and feedback information and thus provides data basis for the said control mechanisms.
Simone Scholten, Ulrich Scholten, Robin Fischer (2010):
Composite Solutions for Consumer-Driven Supply Chains: How to Control the Service-enabling Ecosystem? Proceedings of the 3rd academic symposium on Supply Management, Würzburg, Gabler-Verlag
In this paper, the shift from classical supply chains to more dynamic value net designs based upon modular product and service architectures is revised. The authors show that to enable consumer-driven supply chains, platform operators have to orchestrate distributed value creation efforts and ensure continuous supply, coherence and quality. However, if the platform performance deviates from the expected output, how should the platform operator react to get the system (back) on target? What are the strategic and operational means of acting on the control path to control outputs to-wards desired values, thus ensuring a desired level of performance? In response to this void, the authors develop a control process for service-enabling ecosystems, which allows to systematically assigning control mechanisms to different value creation phases prior to, during and after service supply, categorized into six categories. Feedback loops play a central role: the provision of extended consumer information stimulates overall platform performance by empowering autonomous service enablers to optimize their service portfolio according to the most recent consumer needs and, therefore, to increase the customer perceived value of the overall platform solution.
Robin Fischer, Ulrich Scholten, Simone Scholten, Stefan Tai (2009):
Information-based Control of Service-enabling Ecosystems,
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Enabling Service Business Ecosystems (Athens, Greece),
Continuous optimization of value co-creation in networks of consumers and autonomous service enablers describes a major challenge to mediating platform operators. In analogy to systems theory, we propose to introduce customizable feedback loops from the service-enabling ecosystem to the service enablers via the platform operator. Relevant feedback information can be derived from analysis of network structure, service interactions, and service consumer preferences. In using our method, optimization of individual service offerings and of the network as a whole is facilitated through the platform operator, while retaining the autonomy of each service provider in the network.
Ulrich Scholten, Robin Fischer, Christian Zirpins (2009):
Perspectives for Web Service Intermediaries: How Influence on Quality Makes the Difference, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies (EC-Web 09) (Linz, Austria) LNCS 5692, p. 145–156.
In the service-oriented computing paradigm and the Web service architecture, the broker role is a key facilitator to leverage technical capabilities of loose coupling to achieve organizational capabilities of dynamic customerprovider- relationships. In practice, this role has quickly evolved into a variety of intermediary concepts that refine and extend the basic functionality of service brokerage with respect to various forms of added value like platform or market mechanisms. While this has initially led to a rich variety of Web service intermediaries, many of these are now going through a phase of stagnation or even decline in customer acceptance. In this paper we present a comparative study on insufficient service quality that is arguably one of the key reasons for this phenomenon. In search of a differentiation with respect to quality monitoring and management patterns, we categorize intermediaries into Infomediaries, e-Hubs, e-Markets and Integrators. A mapping of quality factors and control mechanisms to these categories depicts their respective strengths and weaknesses. The results show that Integrators have the highest overall performance, followed by e-Markets, e-Hubs and lastly Infomediaries. A comparative market survey confirms the conceptual findings.
Ulrich Scholten, Ilario Astinov, Vasilly Tchoumatchenko, Tania Vasileva (2004): New qualification concepts through L3 in: E-Learning Services in the Crossfire: Pedagogy, Economy and Technology,
Eds.: Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, Wolfgang Gerteis, Torsten Holmer, Helmut W. Jung, ISBN 3-7639-1024-7, W. Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Bonn,
Ulrich Scholten, Ilario Astinov, Vasilly Tchoumatchenko, Tania Vasileva (2003): Neue Qualizierungskonzepte durch L3,
in: e-Learning-Services im Spannungsfeld von Pädagogik, Okonomie und Technologie,
Hrsg.: Ulf-Daniel Ehlers, W. Gerteis, ISBN 3-76639-30098-1, W.Bertelsmann Verlag GmbH & Co, Bielefeld
Ulrich Scholten, Ilario Astinov, Dimitir Bojkov, Vasilly Tchoumatchenko, Tania Vasileva (2003):
E-learning-Konzepte für die Arbeitsprozessorientierte Ausbildung
in: Arbeitsprozess-orientierte Weiterbildung und e-Learning,
Hrsg.: Andreas Wendt and Joerg Caumanns (Fraunhofer Institut), ISBN 3-8309-1339-7, Waxmann Verlag GmbH, Münster